Amid the new coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, many people especially, common man is thinking why medical scientist and healthcare researchers are taking too much time to develop the vaccine so, that people can be immune to protect from this disease.
Though, the clinical trial for new coronavirus is already under process globally, but the process of producing a usable coronavirus vaccine will take at least 12 to 18 months before make it available to the public at mass level for vaccination.
Coronavirus Vaccine Development Process
Actually, the process of testing and approving a new treatment or vaccine is a complex one, and for good reason. There need to be safeguards in place to confirm that a treatment or vaccine is effective and safe before using it on the general public. Hence, we brought here the vaccine clinical trial and development process.
CURRENT PHASE: RESEARCH & DISCOVERY
Currently, companies and labs around the world are working to identify and develop potential vaccine candidates and test them on animals to determine whether they’re promising and safe enough for human trials.
Once the vaccine has been proven to be successful and safe in animal testing, the FDA will approve it for human clinical trials. Some companies are already pushing to skip animal testing to accelerate the timeline to get to release, but many researchers are concerned about the risks of skipping this crucial step, let see the phases.
The first phase of the human clinical trial will involve giving the potential vaccine to a small group of healthy people (fewer than 100) and then monitoring those people for a few months for effectiveness and side effects.
This will help researchers understand the effect of the vaccine on the human body and whether there are harmful side effects that outweigh the benefits of the vaccine.
Once the vaccine passes the first phase, it will be approved for phase 2, which will involve a larger group of patients monitored over a longer period of time. Phase 2 clinical trials usually involve hundreds of patients and can take up to two years.
Due to the immediate nature of the pandemic and the fact that the vaccine is meant for the general population (and not a very specific subset of the population that could take a long time to recruit) this phase could be completed much faster than the normal timeframe.
Once the vaccine candidate is proven successful in the phase 2 trial, it will be approved for phase 3, in which the vaccine will be given to thousands of patients to gauge varying effectiveness and safety with different subsets of the population.
This will help ensure that the vaccine is truly effective for everyone and not just healthy and young members of the population.
FINAL PHASE: APPROVAL & RELEASE
Finally, the FDA will review the results of the clinical trials and approve the vaccine for the public. Then the company behind the vaccine can mass-produce the vaccine for public use and help them get immune with coronavirus infection.
The vaccine creator will still be required to run phase 4 trials after release to look for additional side effects and understand the long term effects of the vaccine once it’s out on the market. And at any time the vaccine can be taken off the market if necessary.
Even with an immediate global need, unlimited funding (it will take billions to shepherd vaccine candidates through the testing and approvals process), and collaboration from dozens of companies and governments, it will still take over a year before any vaccine will be available to control the COVID-19
Meanwhile, Australian researchers said they have mapped the immune responses from one of country’s first coronavirus patients, findings the health minister said were an important step in developing a vaccine and treatment.
Watch Video: The Race To Develop A Coronavirus Vaccine
While on the other hand, US volunteers test first vaccine for coronavirus and first human trial of a vaccine to protect against pandemic coronavirus has started in the US. But the biotechnology company behind the work, Moderna Therapeutics, says the vaccine has been made using a tried and tested process with more research.
Till now, none of vaccine is developed and not available in the market, you need to be very careful and stay protected from this virus with right preventive measures guided by designated medical authorities or health organizations.
Source: Deep6 AI
What are the Causes of Sensitive Teeth: 5 Reasons of Sensitivity?
It could be challenging for you to eat cold, hot and sour foods or drinks if you feel sensitivity in your teeth or gums. And in some of the critical situations, you can even face a sensitivity problem while breathing cold air and brushing or rinsing your mouth.
However, these kinds of syndromes usually evident after the age of forty or above and there are many curing techniques to fight with such problems. Below you can read the most common causes of sensitive teeth or gums and some useful measures to relieve from it.
Top 5 Reason for Sensitive Teeth
#1 Due to Age Factor
Sensitivity problem is very common after a certain age and most of the people after their fourth or fifth decade of life face teething troubles. However, nowadays owing to many other environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle changes, folks at the young stage of life also facing teeth sensitivity problems.
#2 Hard or Excessive Brushing
As per a senior Dentist in Jamaica, if you regularly use a hard bristle brush for your teeth or do brush with excessive pressure, then your tooth enamel will be getting wear down and also cause your gums to become sensitive towards cold or hot foods or beverages.
#3 Use of Teeth Whitening Products
To remove the yellowness in teeth, people use cosmetics made dental care or teeth whitening products containing harmful ingredients like baking soda, peroxide which can affect tooth nerves and can easily cause sensitivity problems especially if your teeth dentin is already exposed.
#4 Due to Gum Related Problems
If you have gum related problems, then you can feel the sensitivity in your teeth. Actually, gum problems can cause a sensitivity problem in two ways – one it teeth decay and enamel breakdown which uncover the dentin and another is, an infection that affects the teeth roots and causes gums disease.
#5 Due to Past Dental Treatments
Sometimes dental procedures like root canal treatment, filling, dental implants, cosmetic dentistry, crown & bridges can also cause sensitivity problems. So if you have earlier gone through such dental care and treatment process and now feeling sensitivity, you need to again visit at the same dentist to get the treatment for teeth sensitivity.
All the above factors can be major causes of teeth sensitivity and if you are already facing it, then you can cure it with few preventive measures like – Brush gently & use of soft bristle brush, use toothpaste specially meant for sensitive teeth, and avoid excessive cold or hot and acidic foods like oranges, tomatoes & lemons.
However, at the initial stage of teeth sensitivity you can control such problems but for serious illness visit at the nearest dental care clinic and consult the doctor for complete medical treatment and cure. Here the dentist will recommend the best treatment for tooth sensitivity and if there is a major problem it will be cured and treated professionally with right dental procedures.
5 Things You Don’t Know About Coronavirus: New Research & Studies
Coronavirus or COVID-19, became one of the worst pandemics of the century, infected millions and killed tens of thousands of people globally. The virus is deadly, as there is no vaccine developed yet and it is a very highly contagious disease.
Declared as a pandemic and people know lots of things about this deadly virus, like its symptoms, how it spread, what are precautions you need to take to keep yourself protected, and what are the possible remedies and treatments, etc.
But since this virus has been found, it has mutated itself and now there are different symptoms and new things are caming out by various research and studies. So, you need to read what you don’t know about COVID-19 and be aware of this deadly virus.
Five Things You Still Don’t Know About COVID-19
#1 Men are Dying More Compared to Women
As per the report published in Aljazeera, men are dying more compared to their women. In China, 2.8 percent of men who caught the virus had died, compared with 1.7 percent of women who contracted it. While in Italy, where the death rate is currently 7.2 percent for men and 4.1 percent for women.
Likewise, South Korea, where extensive testing was carried out, despite showing that the proportion of women who tested positive for the virus was higher than that of men, about 54 percent of the reported deaths were still among men.
Similarly, in other countries, men are more getting infected and also dying higher compared to their female counterparts. And as per the doctors and medical experts, the main reason behind this is, unhealthy lifestyle, excessive smoking or drinking habits, week immune system, hormonal differences and extra X chromosome in women compare to men.
#2 Many Patients are Losing their Sense of Smell
As per the research and new studies, patients suffering from coronavirus infection are losing their sense of smell. Though, as per the British Rhinological Society, post-viral anosmia is one of the leading causes of smell loss in adults, accounting for up to 40% of cases.
And in a few countries, at least 61 percent reported reduced or lost sense of smell, that the mean onset for reduction or loss in the sense of smell was 3.4 days. And in many countries cases, 73% patients lost their sense of smell prior to coronavirus diagnosis.
#3 Smokers, Diabetics, Hypertensives Can Suffer Strokes
As per the new studies and research on COVID-19, people suffering from coronavirus infection and having chronic diabetes, hypertension, smoking or bad health conditions can also suffer from unusual strokes or even heart attacks with deadly consequences.
Covid-19 infection presenting with cerebrovascular accident (stroke) up to 5 to 6 percent, from different studies. And, as per the studies in US, certain young persons have also presented for the first time with stroke due to COVID-19.
#4 COVID-19 in Semen and Can be Sexually Transmitted
Coronavirus is reaching everywhere. As per the recent studies in China, Coronavirus was found in the semen of recovering and acute male COVID-19 patients. Though it remains unknown, according to the CDC, whether the disease can be transmitted sexually.
In the study, originally published on JAMA Network Open and conducted in Shangqiu, China, six patients—15.8%—of 38 COVID-19-positive males had the virus in their semen. And four of those men with COVID-19 in their semen were at the acute stage of infection, while the other two had already recovered.
Though, the research neither confirms nor denies whether the virus can be sexually transmitted or not. As researchers did not follow up with the participants to determine the duration of coronavirus in their semen and whether the men had spread it to their sexual partners or due to any other sources of transmission.
#5 There are 10 Different Types of Coronavirus
Seems very amazing to listen, but you are reading correctly. Yes, coronavirus has mutated itself into different forms and now 10 different types of COVID-19 virus are infecting people globally also making it difficult for medical science to research and develop the right vaccine or medicine for the treatments for every virus.
As per the research from the 3,600 coronaviruses sample collected from 55 countries from December 2019 to April 6, 2020, for their study coronavirus had evolved into multiple types during its initial spread in China and the rest of the world.
Currently, there are 11 types of coronaviruses that are classified into O, A2, A2a, A3, B, B1, O, and so on, including type O which is the ‘ancestral type’ that was first originated from its epicenter in the city of Wuhan, China.
Why Young People are also Dying Because of Coronavirus: 4 Reasons
Coronavirus or COVID-19 has infected all the age groups of people globally, and its true old age people are mainly and easily getting infected and die due to this infection. But do you know many young people are also dying because of this disease?
And recently researchers have identified reasons why young who are fit and healthy could be dying of the new coronavirus COVID-19. Though, mostly aged people are dying, but it also a true, number of younger people – with no known health problems – have died in the UK or other nations after testing positive for the disease.
Dr. Sanjay Gupta, a neurosurgeon and chief medical correspondent for CNN, wrote in his article, all about the reasons behind the death of young people due to coronavirus. So let’s find out what Dr. Gupta wrote and find out the reasons.
4 Reasons Young People Dying Due to COVID-19
#1 Variations in the Genetic Factors
Dr. Gupta said, “One possibility is a gene variation in the ACE2 gene. ACE2 is an enzyme that attaches to the outer surface of cells in the lungs, as well as the heart.” Coronavirus uses such enzymes to enter airway cells and finally into the lungs.
Scientists studying are analyzing the DNA of patients who had serious cases of COVID-19 and no underlying health issues such as diabetes or heart or lung disease, and comparing it with the DNA of those with mild or no pre-existing disease at all.
#2 Depletion of Vital Fluid in the Lungs
As per Dr. Gupta – Another possible factor is that pulmonary surfactant – a fluid secreted by the cells of the tiny air sacs in the lungs – becomes depleted in COVID-19 patients.
This fluid helps the lungs to expand and contract normally, but when the supply is depleted that function is disrupted, the air sacs can collapse and it becomes much harder to breathe for the patients who then supported with ventilators.
Moreover, Dr. Gupta also wrote, if you think of your lungs as a sponge, surfactant would be the detergent which would make them soft and pliable. Without surfactant, however, your lung becomes stiff and hard to squeeze making difficult for patents to struggle to breathe even when they are put on the ventilator.
#3 Highly Sensitive Immune System
In the study, researchers are also looking into the human immune system and how it responds to viruses and bacteria. As it is very much possible that a healthy immune system could lead to severe problems among young people.
The third reason Dr. Gupta wrote: “In some young, healthy people, a very reactive immune system could lead to a massive inflammatory storm that could overwhelm the lungs and other organs. In those cases, it is not an aged or weakened immune system that is the problem – it is one that works too well.”
#4 Negligence in Taking the Precautions
The fourth and last reason, there is a possibility some young people thinking they are healthy and invincible, and therefore taking fewer precautions or ignoring social distancing rules to prevent themselves from catching coronavirus.
Those people “have been exposed to much larger viral loads from the environment or suffering from flu, Dr. Gupta added. In the UK, the most seriously affected patients have been the elderly and vulnerable, according to Government statistics.
In its most recent update, on March 31, the Office for National Statistics wrote: “The vast majority of deaths involving COVID-19 have been among people aged 65 years and over (100 out of 108), with almost half (45) of these occurring in the over-85 age group.”
In US 29% Patients are 20–44 years
In the US, as of March 16, a total of 4,226 COVID-19 cases had been reported, with reports increasing to 500 or more cases per day beginning March 14.
Among 2,449 patients with known age, 6% were aged ≥85, 25% were aged 65–84 years, 18% each were aged 55–64 years and 45–54 years, and 29% were aged 20–44 years. Only 5% of cases occurred in persons aged 0–19 years.
Watch Video: Why Young People Are Vulnerable to COVID-19?
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