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Why Global Fertility Rates are Dropping; Population Will Fall by 2100

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why global fertility rates are dropping

The fertility rates are declining at concerning speed that can lead to shrink of population by the end of the century. Yes, as per the BBC news report, 23 nations – including Spain and Japan – are expected to see their populations halve by 2100.

What is The Actual Scenario of Low Fertility Rates?

The fertility rate – the average number of children a woman gives birth to – is falling. If the number falls below approximately 2.1, then the size of the population starts to fall. In 1950, women were having an average of 4.7 children in their lifetime.

Researchers at the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation showed the global fertility rate nearly halved to 2.4 in 2017 – and their study, published in the Lancet, projects it will fall below 1.7 by 2100.

women's fertility rate chart

As a result, the researchers expect the number of people on the planet to peak at 9.7 billion around 2064, before falling down to 8.8 billion by the end of the century. That’s a pretty big thing; most of the world is transitioning into natural population decline.

Why are Fertility Rates Dropping?

It has nothing to do with sperm counts or the usual things that come to mind when discussing fertility. Instead it is being driven by more women in education and work, as well as greater access to contraception, leading to women choosing to have fewer children. In many ways, falling fertility rates are a success story.

Which Countries have the Lowest Fertility Rates and Affected most?

Japan’s population is projected to fall from a peak of 128 million in 2017 to less than 53 million by the end of the century. Italy is expected to see an equally dramatic population crash from 61 million to 28 million over the same time frame.

world population decline prediction

They are two of 23 countries – which also include Spain, Portugal, Thailand and South Korea – expected to see their population more than halve. While on the other hand China, currently the most populous nation in the world, is expected to peak at 1.4 billion in four years’ time before nearly halving to 732 million by 2100.

India will take its place, while the UK is predicted to peak at 75 million in 2063, and fall to 71 million by 2100. However, this will be a truly global issue, with 183 out of 195 countries having a fertility rate below the replacement level.

Why Declining Fertility Rate is a Concerning Factor?

You might think this is great for the environment. A smaller population would reduce carbon emissions as well as deforestation for farmland. That would be true except for the inverted age structure (more old people than young people) and all the uniformly negative consequences of an inverted age structure would be major problem.

What Study Says?

  • The number of under-fives will fall from 681 million in 2017 to 401 million in 2100.
  • The number of over 80-year-olds will soar from 141 million in 2017 to 866 million in 2100.

As per the Prof Murray, “It will create enormous social change. It makes me worried because I have an eight-year-old daughter and I wonder what the world will be like.” Who pays tax in a massively aged world? Who pays for healthcare for the elderly? Who looks after the elderly? Will people still be able to retire from work?

What could be the possible solution?

Countries, including the UK, have used migration to boost their population and compensate for falling fertility rates. However, this stops being the answer once nearly every country’s population is shrinking.

“We will go from the period where it’s a choice to open borders, or not, to frank competition for migrants, as there won’t be enough,” argues Prof Murray. Some countries have tried policies such as enhanced maternity and paternity leave, free childcare, financial incentives and extra employment rights, but there is no clear answer.

Sweden has dragged its fertility rate up from 1.7 to 1.9, but other countries that have put significant effort into tackling the “baby bust” have struggled. Singapore still has a fertility rate of around 1.3. Prof Murray says: “I find people laugh it off; they can’t imagine it could be true, they think women will just decide to have more kids.

“If you can’t [find a solution] then eventually the species disappears, but that’s a few centuries away.” The researchers warn against undoing the progress on women’s education and access to contraception.

Prof Stein Emil Vollset said: “Responding to population decline is likely to become an overriding policy concern in many nations, but must not compromise efforts to enhance women’s reproductive health or progress on women’s rights.”

But African Nations Have Different Story?

The population of sub-Saharan Africa is expected to treble in size to more than three billion people by 2100. And the study says Nigeria will become the world’s second biggest country, with a population of 791 million.

Prof Murray says: “We will have many more people of African descent in many more countries as we go through this. “Global recognition of the challenges around racism are going to be all the more critical if there are large numbers of people of African descent in many countries.”

Why is 2.1 fertility rates is considered as a threshold?

You might think the number should be 2.0 – two parents have two children, so the population stays the same size. But even with the best healthcare, not all children survive to adulthood.

Also, babies are ever so slightly more likely to be male. It means the replacement figure is 2.1 in developed countries. Nations with higher childhood mortality also need a higher fertility rate.

What are the Views of Experts?

Prof Ibrahim Abubakar, University College London (UCL), said: “If these predictions are even half accurate, migration will become a necessity for all nations and not an option. “To be successful we need a fundamental rethink of global politics. “The distribution of working-age populations will be crucial to whether humanity prospers or withers.”

Source: BBC News

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Food

Eight Species You Must Eat in Monsoon: Benefits of Spices in Food

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benefits of spices in food

Monsoon on the peek, also makes bacteria and virus more active attacking the human body. This rainy season also stimulate people to enjoy more spicy foods adding taste to their mouth through multi-cuisine food items at their home.

Spices not only add taste to your food, but also benefits to your health. As monsoon is also a season for impaired immunity or slow digestion, so you must have spices into your food during the rainy season to protect us against various types of infections. Hence, here we brought eight must have spices during monsoon stay protected from various diseases

8 Must Have Spices in the Monsoon

#1 Turmeric

With antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunity-boosting properties, turmeric makes it a must-have spice in your all types of foods. And the star behind the popularity of this spice is curcumin – a bio active compound of turmeric.

And, as per various medical studies, turmeric improves immunity and protects our body from various infections. Furthermore, Ayurveda also recommends turmeric to balance vata and pita doshas, which are most affected during the monsoon.

#2 Cinnamon

Cinnamon contains polyphenols that makes it one of the most important spices. Apart from presence of antioxidants, cinnamon it also has compounds that show anti-inflammatory action that helps to repair the body tissue and strengthens it to fight infection. Another compound, Cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon, helps with respiratory tract infections.

#3 Ginger

In monsoon, Ginger is one the must have spice that pacifies the cough and cold, that is very common during monsoon season. It is great remedy for sore throat and also boosts immunity, especially to fight with common cold and flu. Ginger contains the natural expectorant – it loosens the mucus in the lungs while soothing the tissue.

Also Read: 5 Natural Home Remedies for Common Cold and Cough

Apart from that, Ginger also improves the digestion system, which is badly affected by monsoon season, as infections from food are very common during the rainy season, therefore, keeping the digestive system healthy becomes important. 

#4 Celery (Ajwain)

Another, digestion stimulator, yes Ajwain contains the essential oils, bioactive compounds, and minerals that really help alleviate nausea and stomach-ache; both are common of an unhealthy/weak digestive system. People with the acidity or gastric problems taking Ajwain water on regular basis will help them keep the digestion in top gear.

Also Read: How To Make Immune System Stronger: 5 Ways To Boost Your Immunity

#5 Hing (Asafoetida)

Used in many Indian foods adding a blended taste and enhance digestion and keeps flatulence at bay. It is also good for colic pain; in fact, rubbing Hing dissolved in water on small babies bloated tummies is a common home remedy.

The bio active compounds present in this gum resin show strong antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-fungal activities. The Hing was used at large scale to cure Spanish Flu spread in 1918 and it was also effective against H1N1 too. And consuming hing in monsoon may protect you against not just regular rainy season ailments but also against the pandemic around us.

#6 Saunf (Fennel)

It is one of the very aromatic spice and is traditionally chewed after a meal as a mouth freshener. However the actual science behind using this humble spice is actually that, it contains active compounds that help digestion, relive flatulence and prevent indigestion. Saunf can be had as an infusion, after meals or even added to the meal.

#7 Jeera (Cumin)

Stimulates digestion by speeding up the release of digestive enzymes and the release of bile from the liver, Cumin contains phytochemical compounds – a powerful antioxidants. These two properties together make it a must have spice in your food, especially during monsoons when digestion system more prone to bacteria and infections.

#8 Garlic 

Not a spice, but mostly used as a flavor while cooking food, Garlic is also well-known immunity booster. Actually, Garlic contains allicin – its active agent. On ingestion, compounds formed from allicin have shown to boost the immune reaction of white blood cells against flu viruses. To extract its compounds, Garlic should be chopped or crushed for maximum benefits. Adding garlic to your daily meals is the best way to boost your immunity.

Also Read: Six Foods You Must Consume Daily for Vitamin C to Boost Immunity

Apart from this, there are many spices and herbs you can add to your meals to protect your body from seasonal bacteria and infections. However, apart from cooking, you can also use spices to prepare brew (kadha) or other hot beverages to keep yourself warm and enhance the immunity, even it is a monsoon time or any other season around the year.       

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Food

Six Foods You Must Consume Daily for Vitamin C to Boost Immunity

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As you know to fight with COVID-19 like deadly disease you need to boost your immunity. And Vitamin C is one the major source helps to improve the immunity. Though, there are many food items rich with Vitamin C, but it not possible for everyone to consume all of them as few are unaffordable for everyone and few are difficult to find or cook.

But there are few foods you can easily find nearby your shop or supermarkets. You can easily find and add these foods into your daily diet to boost your immunity and stay protected from various diseases. So, let’s find out what are the foods.

6 Vitamin-C Rich Foods for Immune System

vitamin c foods for immune system

Also Read: How To Make Immune System Stronger: 5 Ways To Boost Your Immunity

#1 Oranges

Oranges are citric fruit containing more than 53% Vitamin C with antioxidant properties. Oranges also contains the different kinds of vitamins and essential nutrients helps to boost our immune health and protects our cell from damage caused by free radicals.

Oranges for vitamin c

Apart from that, oranges are also ample source of Vitamin D, a nutrient that plays an important role in regulating our immune response system.

 #2 Amla

Amla which is also known as Indian Gooseberry, a small fruit laden with nutrients and provides many health benefits. It is a source of Vitamin C, which acts as a powerful antioxidant and is beneficial for our nervous system, immune system, and skin.

Amla for for vitamin c

If you consume one Indian Gooseberry daily it can help you meet 46% of the Daily Value of Vitamin C. Moreover, Amla also contains manganese that supports our metabolism, bone formation, reproduction, and immune response.

Also Read: 5 Health Benefits of Eating Spinach Leaves or Palak

#3 Lemon

Lemon an easily available fruit is one of the most common sources of Vitamin C and other antioxidants that are considered very effective in fighting foreign pathogens and strengthening your immune system along with benefit to your digestive system.  

Lemon for for vitamin c

This small, yellow citrus fruit contains a considerable amount of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, pantothenic acid, copper, and manganese.

#4 Guava

A seasonal fruit, Guava is another richest source of vitamin C. Really, one guava provides double with the amount of Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin C, which is more than one orange. Though, it is a seasonal fruit but if possible get it.

Guava for for vitamin c

This fruit also contains a high amount of potassium, calcium and iron. The antimicrobial properties can help to kill harmful bacteria and viruses that can lead to infection mainly monsoon season or when season get changed from one spell.  

#5 Papaya

Do you know a medium-sized papaya contains double amount of the daily recommended amount of Vitamin C. And this sweet and perennial fruit has been used for centuries to make medicines to cure several ailments in your body.

Papaya for vitamin c

Papaya also contains a digestive enzyme called papain that has anti-inflammatory effects. Apart from that, papaya contains decent amounts of potassium, magnesium, and folate, all of which are beneficial for your skin, immunity and overall health.

Also Read: Top 5 Health Benefits of Eating Carrots Daily

#6 Capsicum

Capsicum for vitamin c

Most of the people don’t know that capsicum has an equal amount of Vitamin C as compared to any citric fruit. Actually, we often ignore this vegetable when it comes to boosting our immune health, and capsicum is one of them many people don’t eat.

This green, yellow and red vegetable is loaded with Vitamin C and beta carotene, which can boost your body’s natural defense system, improve your skin quality and keep your eyes healthy. It can also help to reduce oxidative stress, a prominent cause of a weak immune system, helping your body to stay protected from various diseases.

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Health

How to Make Teeth Stronger Naturally: 8 Tips for Healthy Teeth

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How To Make Teeth Stronger Naturally

A tooth is an important part of your body, you need to keep it strong and healthy to avoid various diseases and enjoy the chewing for longer days in your life. Actually, weak teeth not only become victim of easily breakable but also attract bacteria that can damage your teeth due to cavity eating the enamel of your teeth causing pain.

So, keeping teeth healthy is important for its longer performance. And keeping the teeth strong and safe is possible with notorious food and right habits that are explained below. These healthy teeth tips will also help you to keep your health maintained through healthy eating with healthy teeth that allows you to chew foods properly.

#1 Cut the Extra Sugary Food Intake

avoid sugary food for healthy teeth

Bacteria in teeth mainly attracted due to sugary foods and drinks. Actually, it increases the acid level in mouth that softens and wears away your enamel. Hence, avoid sweet candies and cold drinks or beverages having extra sweets or containing with carbonated flavors to keep your teeth healthy.  

#2 Brush Twice with Right Toothbrush

Bruising the teeth at the night before going to bed is more important than in the morning. As most of the bacteria and cavity is develop when you are sleep mode and activity in your mouth slowdowns and salvia production stops.  

Right Toothbrush for healthy teeth

Actually, saliva in your mouth controls bad bacteria and minimize their actions that create cavity in your teeth causing pain and if not treated can permanently damage your teeth. But make sure don’t over brush or do hardly.    

Also Read: Why Is It Important To Brush Your Teeth At Night: Health Benefits

#3 Use Fluoride Toothpaste for Brushing

Normal tooth paste will make tooth stronger except cleaning your mouth. So, to make your teeth stronger you need to use the fluoride toothpaste approved from certified dental associations.

Fluoride Toothpaste for strong teeth

Fluoride based toothpaste also prevents tooth decay and can also strengthen your teeth, making them less susceptible to future mineral loss.

Also Read: How to Stop a Cavity from Getting Worse Naturally: 5 Simple Ways

#4 Drink More Water and Rinse Your Mouth 

Water should be the most preferred beverage you should regularly use to drink and clean your mouth. Water is not only a sugar-free beverage but also helps remove harmful substances from the body keeping your entire body healthy.

Rinse Your Mouth with water for healthy teeth

While on the other hand, rinsing your mouth out with water also help to reduce demineralization when you don’t get chance to clean your mouth with toothbrush. And it would be effective and helpful when you eat an acidic or sugary food.

Also Read: What To Eat And Drink After Tooth Extraction: Removal Precautions

#5 Increase Your Calcium and Vitamins Intake

Apart from taking preventive measures to keep your teeth strong and healthy, you also need to add more nutritious foods in your diet to make your teeth strong. And calcium is the best source to make teeth stronger naturally.

Calcium and Vitamins Intake for healthy teeth

Also Read: Six Food You Must Consume Daily for Vitamin C to Boost Immunity

However, calcium is produced within the teeth naturally but important mineral is stripped by acids and bacteria over time. So, add calcium-rich food in your diet like dairy products, beans, lentils, Soy Beans, Seafoods almonds and spinach.   

#6 Eat Less Starchy Foods  

avoid Starchy Foods for healthy teeth

Eating starchy food like potatoes, rice, and bread, are loaded with simple carbohydrates that increase the amount of fermentable sugars in the mouth, which can erode your teeth. And such foods also become reasonable for tooth decay. 

Also Read: Top Six Foods Need to Avoid Bad for the Health of Teeth and Gums

#7 Avoid Grinding Your Teeth

Avoid teeth Grinding

This is kind of bad habit among many people who grind their upper and lower teeth together, especially at night. And due to such habits your teeth over time it can wear down the enamel and weaken your teeth structure. Hence to avoid impact of grinding habit you can use custom-fitted mouth guard that can protect your teeth.

Also Read: How To Stop Grinding Teeth In Sleep Naturally: Six Home Remedies

#8 Visit at Dentist for Regular Checkups

To ensure your teeth are healthy you need to visits at nearest dentist in Jamaica at regular intervals for dental examination and checkups.

Also Read: How Often Should You Get Teeth Cleaned By Dentist

Dentist can spot cavities, or tooth grinding or other damages, and if there are such symptoms he can suggest you right amount of fluoride to harden and protect enamel. If water supply in your mouth is not fluoridated you need to use the fluoride supplements, mouthwashes, or coatings for your teeth to keep your teeth strong and healthy.

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