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Why Global Fertility Rates are Dropping; Population Will Fall by 2100

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why global fertility rates are dropping

The fertility rates are declining at concerning speed that can lead to shrink of population by the end of the century. Yes, as per the BBC news report, 23 nations – including Spain and Japan – are expected to see their populations halve by 2100.

What is The Actual Scenario of Low Fertility Rates?

The fertility rate – the average number of children a woman gives birth to – is falling. If the number falls below approximately 2.1, then the size of the population starts to fall. In 1950, women were having an average of 4.7 children in their lifetime.

Researchers at the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation showed the global fertility rate nearly halved to 2.4 in 2017 – and their study, published in the Lancet, projects it will fall below 1.7 by 2100.

women's fertility rate chart

As a result, the researchers expect the number of people on the planet to peak at 9.7 billion around 2064, before falling down to 8.8 billion by the end of the century. That’s a pretty big thing; most of the world is transitioning into natural population decline.

Why are Fertility Rates Dropping?

It has nothing to do with sperm counts or the usual things that come to mind when discussing fertility. Instead it is being driven by more women in education and work, as well as greater access to contraception, leading to women choosing to have fewer children. In many ways, falling fertility rates are a success story.

Which Countries have the Lowest Fertility Rates and Affected most?

Japan’s population is projected to fall from a peak of 128 million in 2017 to less than 53 million by the end of the century. Italy is expected to see an equally dramatic population crash from 61 million to 28 million over the same time frame.

world population decline prediction

They are two of 23 countries – which also include Spain, Portugal, Thailand and South Korea – expected to see their population more than halve. While on the other hand China, currently the most populous nation in the world, is expected to peak at 1.4 billion in four years’ time before nearly halving to 732 million by 2100.

India will take its place, while the UK is predicted to peak at 75 million in 2063, and fall to 71 million by 2100. However, this will be a truly global issue, with 183 out of 195 countries having a fertility rate below the replacement level.

Why Declining Fertility Rate is a Concerning Factor?

You might think this is great for the environment. A smaller population would reduce carbon emissions as well as deforestation for farmland. That would be true except for the inverted age structure (more old people than young people) and all the uniformly negative consequences of an inverted age structure would be major problem.

What Study Says?

  • The number of under-fives will fall from 681 million in 2017 to 401 million in 2100.
  • The number of over 80-year-olds will soar from 141 million in 2017 to 866 million in 2100.

As per the Prof Murray, “It will create enormous social change. It makes me worried because I have an eight-year-old daughter and I wonder what the world will be like.” Who pays tax in a massively aged world? Who pays for healthcare for the elderly? Who looks after the elderly? Will people still be able to retire from work?

What could be the possible solution?

Countries, including the UK, have used migration to boost their population and compensate for falling fertility rates. However, this stops being the answer once nearly every country’s population is shrinking.

“We will go from the period where it’s a choice to open borders, or not, to frank competition for migrants, as there won’t be enough,” argues Prof Murray. Some countries have tried policies such as enhanced maternity and paternity leave, free childcare, financial incentives and extra employment rights, but there is no clear answer.

Sweden has dragged its fertility rate up from 1.7 to 1.9, but other countries that have put significant effort into tackling the “baby bust” have struggled. Singapore still has a fertility rate of around 1.3. Prof Murray says: “I find people laugh it off; they can’t imagine it could be true, they think women will just decide to have more kids.

“If you can’t [find a solution] then eventually the species disappears, but that’s a few centuries away.” The researchers warn against undoing the progress on women’s education and access to contraception.

Prof Stein Emil Vollset said: “Responding to population decline is likely to become an overriding policy concern in many nations, but must not compromise efforts to enhance women’s reproductive health or progress on women’s rights.”

But African Nations Have Different Story?

The population of sub-Saharan Africa is expected to treble in size to more than three billion people by 2100. And the study says Nigeria will become the world’s second biggest country, with a population of 791 million.

Also Read: Woman in Africa Given Birth to 10 Babies Created the World Record

Prof Murray says: “We will have many more people of African descent in many more countries as we go through this. “Global recognition of the challenges around racism are going to be all the more critical if there are large numbers of people of African descent in many countries.”

Why is 2.1 fertility rates is considered as a threshold?

You might think the number should be 2.0 – two parents have two children, so the population stays the same size. But even with the best healthcare, not all children survive to adulthood.

Also, babies are ever so slightly more likely to be male. It means the replacement figure is 2.1 in developed countries. Nations with higher childhood mortality also need a higher fertility rate.

What are the Views of Experts?

Prof Ibrahim Abubakar, University College London (UCL), said: “If these predictions are even half accurate, migration will become a necessity for all nations and not an option. “To be successful we need a fundamental rethink of global politics. “The distribution of working-age populations will be crucial to whether humanity prospers or withers.”

Source: BBC News

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10 Health Benefits of Drinking Beer Daily in Moderation

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health benefits of drinking beer daily

No doubt alcohol is harmful to your body, but only when you consume excessively. Available in different flavours and verity you have multiple options to intake the liquor as per your affordability and drinking habits.

However, Beer is one of the best alcoholic drinks you can consume with multiple health benefits. Yes, apart from merely having the 8% alcohol contains, beer is also good for your health but if you take it moderately. Let me tell you the health benefits of drinking beer.

10 Benefits of Drinking Beer Everyday

#1 A Highly Nutritious Drink

Beer contains a good amount of nutrition like folate, vitamins 12, folic acid, selenium, potassium, iron, calcium, phosphates, and even fibre that prevents anaemia. Though Beer still doesn’t have nutrition labels but take factually there is some nutritional benefit to be gained from your favourite brew.

 #2 Strengthens Your Bones

As per the studies, high levels of silicon in beer contribute to higher bone density in your body. While on the other hand, The National Institutes of Health says dietary silicon in the soluble form of orthosilicic acid (OSA) is important for the growth and development of bone and connective tissue help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

#3 Good for Digestive System

Overflowed with an ample number of digestive properties, like the stimulation of gastrin, gastric acid, cholecystokinin, and pancreatic enzymes, beer improves your digestion system. Beer passes through your digestive tract, the soluble fibres help in clearing your intestine.  

#4 Reduces Risk of Kidney Stones

As per the research conducted in Finland, if you consume an additional bottle of beer each day you will have 40% fewer chances of kidney stones. Drinking beer flush out bad toxins from the body, keeping the kidneys properly functioning.

Also Read: How to Keep Kidney Healthy Natural Way: 5 Tips for Strong Kidneys

And Hops, an ingredient used in brewing beer, contain compounds that slow calcium release from bones. In effect, this can prevent the build-up of lost calcium in the kidneys.

#5 Beer Helps to Reduce Stress

As per the researchers, two glasses of beer a day can reduce work-related stress or anxiety. Yes, there’s some truth to the idea that alcohol can reduce stress.

Alcohol is a sedative and a depressant that affects the central nervous system reducing fears and taking your mind off of your troubles. It can help you feel less shy, give you a boost in mood, and make you feel generally relaxed.

#6 Beer Lowers Bad Cholesterol

The study by the American Heart Association showed that moderate beer drinkers slowly decline in good cholesterol than those who didn’t drink beer at all. The soluble fibre in beer helps to reduce your LDL or “bad” cholesterol. And A slower decline in good cholesterol is a positive thing.

#7 Prevents Heart Attack & Stroke

As per the Harvard’s Nutrition Source website, moderate drinking prevents heart disease and certain types of stroke. Studies evaluating the relative benefits between wine, beer, and spirits suggest that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. 

Also Read: Why Moderate Drinking Good for Your Heart Compare to Nondrinkers

#8 Antioxidants Delay Aging

Beer comes with the capability to enhance the potency with the effect of Vitamin E in our bodies that is important for the maintenance of healthy skin and hair health, this also results in delaying in ageing helping you look younger.

#9 Improves Memory Power

Beer contains a secret ingredient called – Xanthohumol, which can help improve cognitive function. It’s a flavonoid that helps slow down the degradation process of memory. The chemical could help protect brain cells from oxidative damage associated with dementia.

Also Read: 10 Best Foods Improve Your Brain Function and Memory Development

#10 Lowers Eye-Related Problems

As per the University of Western Ontario study drinking beer daily in moderate quantity lowers the risk of eye-related problems. The antioxidants in beer, especially in ales and stouts, help prevent the risk of mitochondrial damage and cataracts in the eyes.

Finally, the motive of writing on this topic is not intended to promote the consumption of alcohol. And consuming anything excessively is harmful to your health. These health benefits are noticeable only when you consume the beer in a moderate quantity, hence always drink responsibly.    

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Health

Why You Shouldn’t Study In Bed: Five Reasons

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Why You Shouldn't Study In Bed

It is critical that students locate a suitable location in which to study and work. Some people enjoy going to the library, while others prefer to stay in their rooms.


Because most individuals link their beds with relaxation and sleep, working or completing assignments in bed will lower one’s focus. Doing such things in bed can cause the brain to diverge, causing it to become lazier and possibly fall asleep.

Warm blankets, comfy bed toppers, soft pillows, and putting off responsibilities by pushing snooze are all very appealing on their own, but even more so when contrasted to doing your homework.

Many students like to study in their beds while lying in bed, and in this article, we’ll explain why this is the worst thing you can do for yourself and your education.

5 Reasons Not to Study in Bed

why not to study in bed


#1 You’re less likely to be fully active

While comfort is important, you want to get through it as quickly as possible when it comes to studying. When we are seated at a desk, we can concentrate on the task at hand, making it easier for us to memorize and process information.

When you lie down on the couch, on the other hand, you will be distracted by everything, you will get back and neck ache after a time, and you will get up every 10 minutes to find something else to do. You’ll have to go over the subject numerous times before remembering even a single sentence or equation.


#2 Not enough space

There isn’t enough room for you to study in your bed unless you have a king-size bed with a portable desk on top of it. You’ll need ample space for all of your books, notepads, and even pens and markers if you want to be productive.

Most students nowadays study on their computers or iPad, but this is far from sufficient. Sitting at a desk allows you to establish an area where you can see everything, write things down, take notes, and study your materials. Don’t wait until you’ve failed a few exams to learn that the horizontal position isn’t the best for completing activities and assignments.

#3 It’s more likely that you’ll become bored and fall asleep

Our brains are wired to believe that our mattresses are designed for sleeping and that when we lie down during the day, we should rest. So, when we do anything other than rest there, we confuse our minds, which can lead to two outcomes.

The first is being unable to fall asleep and developing early indicators of insomnia, and the second is being unable to do anything other than sleep on your mattress.

Also Read: Five Bad Habits That Are Actually Good For You: Health Benefits

As a result, you should avoid studying, eating, or doing anything else in your bedroom. Go ahead and lie down when you need to rest. However, if you need to eat, put on cosmetics, or study something new, stay out of this room and complete your chores in the living room or elsewhere.

#4 Backache

This should concern you the most, and it is the primary reason you should not study in bed when you have an exam to prepare for.


You put a strain on your back every time you sit in an unpleasant position. When you do this once in a while, it won’t harm you too much, but if you do it all the time for years, your spine will be messed up, and you’ll be in danger of a variety of health problems. We don’t realize how much harm we cause ourselves when we lay on the mattress to read or study when we’re young.

#5 Procrastination

This is a problem that everyone has to deal with. When we have to do something we don’t want to do, we come up with a million other things to do instead. We use our phones, watch television, and even get up to clean or exercise.


When you have a separate location for your activities, your brain is more likely to understand what needs to be done, and you are more likely to go right to work on them.

There have been numerous studies on this topic, and you should put the hypothesis to the test on your own. Examine how long it takes you to get started reading when you lie down in bed, as well as how many breaks you take.

Then, when you’re sitting at your work, compare the statistics to see how quickly you open the books and how many distractions you have. When you have a dedicated room for studying, you will realize that you are actually saving time and learning a lot more. To cover all of the content, you don’t need to spend the entire day with your books; all you need to do is be focused.

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What Fruit has the Highest and Least Amount of Sugar Content?

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As a matter of fact, we all know, Fruits are enriched with nutrients, water, vitamins, fibre and antioxidants that give you instant energy. At the same time, almost all the fruits also contain sugar that is not usually harmful as it is natural but many diabetic people are worried about their health and they need to be cautious while consuming fruits.

Every fruit has its own sugar level, many of them are not harmful but few of them are not suitable for diabetic patients. Hence, you should be aware of the level of sugar content in different fruits. And below you can find the list of fruits with the least and highest sugar content with tips to consume such fruits to minimize the impact of sugar levels in your body.    

Top 5 Fruits with High Sugar Content

#1 Bananas

Bananas are the best source of energy. But one medium-sized banana has 14 grams of sugar which can be harmful for diabetic patients. So, if you have a slice of half a banana in your morning cereal or smash some pieces in the middle of your peanut butter sandwich the sugar will not affect your body.

#2 Watermelon

Apart from high water content, a medium midsize watermelon has 17 grams of sugar. Watermelon is loaded with water and has special minerals called electrolytes that is just what your body needs to recharge itself. But just keep it two slices at a time to control your sugar levels.

#3 Mangoes

The King of all fruits, Mangos have a whopping 45 grams of sugar per medium-sized fruit. Avoid consuming mangoes if you are trying to lose weight or cut back on your sugar intake. However, you can enjoy a slice or two, but do not go overboard to maintain sugar levels in your body.

#4 Grapes

Although a cup of grapes has around 23 grams of sugar you can slice them in half to consume them slowly and this consumes lesser sugar. You can also slice and deep freeze grapes to be used in smoothies, shakes and oatmeals to make it tastier and minimize the sugar intake.

#5 Cherries

One cup of cherries has around 18 grams of sugar and if you are not cautious you will not remember how many you have had. So, before you start eating cherries, measure them before hands so that you know how many exactly you have consumed and avoided ingestion of the high sugar in your body.

Top 5 Fruits with Low Sugar Content

#1 Papaya

Fruit with the natural source of digestive enzyme, Papaya has around 6 grams of sugar. You can enjoy it by putting some lemon water and sprinkling some sea salt over it before eating. You can also add it to your yoghurt that will help you to curb the sugar levels and make the Papaya tastier.

Also Read: Benefits of Drinking Lemon Water to Boost Immunity with Vitamin C

#2 Guavas

Another natural digestive enzyme and high water content fruit, one medium-sized guava has 5 grams of sugar and 3 grams of fibre. If you have a constipation problem always consume guavas with the skin to get more fibre. And you can add them to your smoothies and shakes or have them alone.

#3 Avocado

One of the best fruit contains only 1.33 grams of sugar in a whole Avocado. You can consume it as a salad, spread it on the toast or use it in your smoothie. Despite having a low sugar content, avocado is high in calories. Not all fruits are loaded with sugar and avocado is one of them that have negligible sugar.

#4 Cantaloupe

Despite being a fraternity of watermelon, Cantaloupehas just 5 grams of sugar and only 23 calories. Apart from regular consumption, you can try it with some cottage cheese and a bit of salt for the twist. And it will also help you keep your intestine cool and clean with fibre and other healthy contents. 

#5 Raspberries

Despite having a good amount of sugar in taste berries are surprisingly low in sugar. Yes, one cup contains only 5 grams of sugar and 8 grams of fibre. And if you consume 1 cup of raspberries they’re more likely to leave you feeling full than some other fruit while keeping your sugar under control.

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