At the time of developing the AI models through machine learning (ML) first and most important thing you need, relevant training data sets, which can only help the algorithms understand the scenario through new data or seeing the objects and predict when used in real-life making various tasks autonomous.
In the visual perception based AI model, you need images, containing the objects that we see in our real life. And to make the object of interest recognizable to such models the images need to be annotated with the right techniques. And image annotation is the process, used to create such annotated images. The applications of image annotation in machine learning and AI is substantial in terms of model success.
What is Image Annotation?
So, right here we will discuss the applications of the image annotation, but before we proceed, we need to review the definition of image annotation and its use in the AI industry. Image annotation is the process of making the object of interest detectable and recognizable to machines.
And to make such objects recognizable in the images, they are annotated with added metadata for the description of the object. And when a huge amount of similar data is feed into the model, it becomes trained enough to recognize the objects when new data is presented in real-life situations.
5 APPLICATIONS OF IMAGE ANNOTATION
Annotated images are mainly used to make the machine learn how to detect the different types of objects. But as per the AI model functions, ML algorithms compatibility and use in the various industries, image annotation applications also differ that all about we will discuss here below with the annotation types.
Detection of Object of Interest
The most important application of image annotation is detecting the objects in the images. In an image, there are multiple things, or you can say objects, but every object would be not required to get noticed by the machines. But the object of interest need to be get detected, and the image annotation technique is applied to annotate and make such objects detectable through computer vision technology.
Recognition of Types of Objects
After detecting the object, it is also important to recognize what types of objects it is, humans, animals or non-living objects like vehicles, street poles and other man-made objects visible in the natural environment. Here again image annotation helps to recognize the objects in the images.
Though, object detection and recognition runs simultaneously, and while annotating the objects in various cases, the notes or metadata is added to describe the attributes and nature of the object, so that machine can easily recognize such things and store the information for the future references.
Classification of Different Objects
It is not necessary all objects in an image belong to the same category, if a dog is visible with man, it needs to be classified or categorized to differentiate both of them. Classification of the objects in the images is another important application of image annotation used in machine learning training.
Along with image classification, the localization of objects is also done through image annotation practice. In image annotation, there are multiple techniques, used to annotate the objects and classified into the different categories helping the visual perception based AI model detect and categorize the objects.
Segmentation of Object in the Single Class
Just like object classification, objects in the single class need to be segmented to make it more clear about the object, its category, position and its attributes. Semantic segmentation image annotation is used to annotate the objects with each pixel in the image belongs to a single class.
The main applications of image annotation are to make the AI model or machine learning algorithm learn with more accuracy about objects in the images. For semantic segmentation, image annotation is basically applied for deep learning-based AI models to give precise results in various scenarios.
Recognizing the Humans Faces & Poses
AI cameras in smartphones or security surveillance are now able to recognize the face of humans. And do you how it became possible in AI world? Thanks to image annotation, that makes the humans face recognizable through computer vision with the ability to identify the person from the database and discriminate them among the huge crowd from the security surveillance system perspective.
In image annotation for face recognition algorithms, the faces of humans are annotated from one point to another point measuring the dimension of the face and its various points like chin, ears eyes, nose and mouth. And these facial landmarks are annotated and provided to the image classification system. Hence, image annotation is playing another important role in recognizing the people from their faces.
TYPES OF IMAGE ANNOTATION
I hope you got to know the applications of image annotation in the world of AI and machine learning. Now you should know what are the types of image annotations used to create the machine learning training datasets for deep learning-based AI models? And we will also discuss here the application of different types of image annotation into various industries, fields and sectors with uses cases of AI-based models.
Bounding Box Annotation to Easily Detect the Objects
Bounding box annotation is one of the most popular techniques used to detect the objects in the images. The object of interest are annotated either in a rectangular or square shape to make the object recognizable to machines through computer vision. All types of AI models like self-driving cars, robots, autonomous flying objects and AI security cameras relying on data created by bounding box annotation.
Semantic Segmentation to Localize Objects in Single Class
To recognize, classify and segment the objects in the single class, semantic image segmentation is used to annotate the objects for more accurate detection by machines. It is actually, the process of diving the images into multiple segments of an object having the different semantic definitions. Autonomous vehicles and drones, need such training data to improve the performance of the AI model.
3D Point Cloud Annotation to Detect the Minor Objects
The image annotation applications not only include object detection or recognition, but even can also measure or estimate the types and dimensions of the object. 3D point cloud annotation is the technique that helps to make such objects detectable to machines through computer vision. Self-driving cars are the use case, where training data sets are created through 3D point cloud annotation. This image annotation helps to detect the object with additional attributes including lane and sideways path detection.
Landmark Annotation to Detect Human Faces & Gestures
Landmark annotation is another type of image annotation technique used to detect human faces. AI models like AI cameras in security surveillance, smartphones and other devices can detect the human faces and recognize the gestures and various human possess. Landmarking is also used in sports analytics to analyze the human possess performed while playing outdoor games. Cogito provides the landmark point annotation with the next-level of accuracy for precise detection of human faces or their poses.
3D Cuboid Annotation to Detect the Object with Dimension
Detecting the dimensions of the object is also important for AI models to get a more accurate measurement of various objects. The 2D images are annotated with capturing all the dimensions visible in the image to build a ground truth dataset for 3D perception on the objects of interest. Again autonomous vehicles, AI robots and visual perception models used to detect the indoor objects like carton boxes with the dimension need such annotated images, created through 3D cuboid annotation.
Polygon Annotation to Detect Asymmetrical Shaped Objects
Similarly, polygon annotation is used to annotate the objects that are in irregular shapes. Coarse or asymmetrical objects can be made recognizable through the polygon image annotation technique. Mainly road marking or other objects are annotated for the self-driving cars. And autonomous flying objects like drones, viewing the objects from Ariel view can detect or recognize such things when trained with training data sets created through polygon annotation for precise object detection.
Polyline/Splines/Line Annotation for Lane or Path Detection
Lines, Polylines and Splines are all similar types of image annotations used to create the training data sets allowing computer vision systems to consider the divisions between important regions of an image. The boundaries, annotating lines or splines are useful to detect lanes for self-driving cars. Road surface marking that are indicating the instructions of driving on the road need to also make understandable to autonomous cars. Polyline annotation that divides one region from another region.
The right applications of image annotation are possible when you use the right tools and techniques to create high-quality training data sets for machine learning. And Cogito is the industry leader in human-powered image annotation services with the best level of accuracy for different AI models or use cases. Working with a team of well-trained and experienced annotators, it can produce the machine learning training data sets for healthcare, agriculture, retail, automotive, drones and robotics.
This article was originally written for cogitotech.com
Artificial Intelligence in Robotics: How AI is Used in Robotics?
Robots were the first-known automated type machines people got to know. There was a time when robots were developed for performing specific tasks, yes such machines were earlier developed without any artificial intelligence (AI) to perform only repetitive tasks.
But now the scenarios are different, AI in getting integrated into robots to develop the advanced level of robotics that can perform multiple tasks, and also learn new things with a better perception of the environment. AI in robotics helps robots perform the crucial tasks with a human-like vision to detect or recognize the various objects.
Nowadays, robots are developed through machine learning training. A huge amount of datasets is used to train the computer vision model, so that robotics can recognize the various objects and carry out the actions accordingly with right results.
And, further, day-by-day, with more quality and precise machine learning processes, robotics performance is getting improved. So, right here we are discussing the machine learning in robotics and types of datasets used to train the AI model developed for robots.
How AI is Used in Robotics?
The AI in robotics not only helps to learn the model to perform certain tasks but also makes machines more intelligent to act in different scenarios. There are various functions integrated into robots like computer vision, motion control, grasping the objects, and training data to understand physical and logistical data patterns and act accordingly.
And to understand the scenarios or recognize the various objects, labeled training data is used to train the AI model through machine learning algorithms. Here, image annotation plays a key role in creating a huge amount of datasets helping the robotics to recognize and grasp different types of objects or perform the desired action in the right manner making AI successful in the robotics.
Application of Sensors in Robotics
The sensor helps the robots to sense the surroundings or perceive the visuals of the environment. Just like five key sensors of human beings, combinations of various sensing technologies are used in the robotics. From motion sensors to computer vision for object detection, there are multiple sensors providing a sensing technology into changing and uncontrolled environments making the AI possible in the robotics.
Uses of Types of Sensors in Robotics:
- Time-of-flight (ToF) Optical Sensors
- Temperature and Humidity Sensors
- Ultrasonic Sensors
- Vibration Sensors
- Millimeter-wave Sensors
Nowadays a wide range of increasingly more sophisticated and accurate similar sensors, combined with systems that can fuse all of this sensor data together is empowering robots to have increasingly good perception and awareness for the right actions in real-life.
Application of Machine Learning in Robotics
Basically, machine learning is the process of training an AI model to make it intelligent enough to perform specific tasks or some varied actions. And to feed the ML algorithms, a set of data is used at a large scale to make sure AI models like robotics can perform precisely. As much as training data will be used to train the model, the accuracy would be at the best level.
In robotics, it is trained to recognize the objects, with the capability to grasp or hold the same object and ability to move from one location to another location. Machine learning mainly helps to recognize the wide-ranging objects visible in different shapes, sizes and various scenarios.
And the machine learning process keeping running if robots detect new objects, it can make the new category to detect such objects if visible again in the near future. However, there are different disciplines of teaching a robot through machine learning. And deep learning is also used to train such models with high-quality training data for a more precise machine learning process.
APPLICATION OF AI IN ROBOTICS
AI in robotics makes such machines more efficient with self-learning ability to recognize the new objects. However, currently, robotics are used at the industrial purpose and in various other fields to perform the various actions with the desired accuracy at higher efficiency, and better than humans.
Video: Most Advance AI Robots
From handling the carton boxes at warehouses, robotics is performing the unbelievable actions making certain tasks easier. Right here we will discuss the application of AI robotics in various fields with types of training data used to train such AI models.
Robotics in Healthcare
Robotics in healthcare are now playing a big role in providing an automated solution to medicine and other divisions in the industry. AI companies are now using big data and other useful data from the healthcare industry to train robots for different purposes.
From medical supplies, to sanitization, disinfection and performing the remote surgeries, AI in robotics making such machines become more intelligent learned from the data and performs various crucial tasks without the help of humans.
Robotics in Agriculture
In the agriculture sector, automation is helping farmers to improve crop yield and boost productivity. And robotics is playing a big role in the cultivation and harvesting the crops with precise detection of plants, vegetables, fruits, and other unwanted floras. In agriculture AI robots can perform the fruits or vegetable plucking, spraying the pesticides, and monitor the health conditions of plants.
Robotics in Automotive
The automobile industry moved to the automation that leads to fully-automated assembly lines to assemble the vehicles. Except for a few important tasks, there are many processes performed by robotics to develop cars reducing the cost of manufacturing. Usually, robotics is specially trained to perform certain actions with better accuracy and efficiency.
Robotics at Warehouses
Warehouse needs manpower to manage the huge amount of inventory kept by mainly eCommerce companies to deliver the products to their customers or move from location to another location. Robotics is trained to handle such inventories with the capability to carefully carry from one place to another place reducing the human workforce in performing such repetitive tasks.
Robotics at Supply Chain
Just like inventory handling at warehouses, Robotics at logistics and supply chain plays a crucial role in moving the items transported by the logistic companies. AI model for robotics gets trained through computer vision technology to detect various objects. Such robotics can pick the boxes and kept at the desired place or load and unload the same from the vehicle at faster speed with accuracy.
Training Data for Robotics
As you already know a huge amount of training data is required to develop such robots. And such data contains the images of annotated objects that help machine learning algorithms learn and recognize the similar objects when visible in the real-life.
And to generate a huge amount of such training data, image annotation techniques are used to annotate the different objects to make them recognizable to machines. And Anolytics provides the one-stop data annotation solution to AI companies to render high-quality training data sets for machine learning-based model development.
Artificial Intelligence in High-Quality Embryo Selection for IVF
IVF treatment is becoming a common practice in today’s reality, where 12% of the world population struggle to conceive naturally. But thanks to artificial intelligence in IVF, the whole process is going to help the embryologists to select the best quality embryos for in-vitro fertilization improving the success of conception through artificial insemination.
As per the latest study published in eLife, a deep learning system was able to choose the most high-quality embryos for IVF with 90% accuracy. Compared to trained embryologists, the deep learning model performed with an accuracy of approximately 75% while the embryologists performed with an average accuracy of 67%.
As per the research stated, the average success rate of IVF is 30 percent. The treatment is also expensive, costing patients over $10,000 for each IVF cycle with many patients requiring multiple cycles in order to achieve successful pregnancy.
Risk Factors in IVF Treatment
While multiple factors determine the success of IVF cycles, the challenge of non-invasive selection of the highest available quality embryos from a patient remains one of the most important factors in achieving successful IVF outcomes.
Currently, tools available to embryologists are limited and expensive, leaving most embryologists to rely on their observational skills and expertise. As selection of quality embryo increases the pregnancy rates, that is now possible with AI.
Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) set out to develop an assistive tool that can evaluate images captured using microscopes traditionally available at fertility centers.
There is so much at stake for our patients with each IVF cycle. Embryologists make dozens of critical decisions that impact the success of a patient cycle. With assistance from our AI system, embryologists will be able to select the embryo that will result in a successful pregnancy better than ever before,” said co-lead author Charles Bormann, PhD, MGH IVF Laboratory director.
AI in Embryo Selection through Machine Learning
The team trained the deep learning system (sub branch of machine learning) using images of embryos captured at 113 hours post-insemination. Among 742 embryos, the AI system was 90% accurate in choosing the most high-quality embryos.
The investigators further assessed the system’s ability to distinguish among high-quality embryos with the normal number of human chromosomes and compared the system’s performance to that of trained embryologists help in healthy baby growth in the womb.
The results showed that the system was able to differentiate and identify embryos with the highest potential for success significantly better than 15 experienced embryologists from five different fertility centers across the US.
However, the deep learning system is meant to act only as an assistive tool for embryologists to make judgments during embryo selection but going to benefit clinical embryologists and patients. Actually, a major challenge in the field is deciding on the embryos that need to be transferred during IVF and such AI models can make right decisions.
Machine Learning Training Data for AI Model
The research stated that deep learning model has potential to outperform human clinicians, if algorithms are trained with more qualitative healthcare training datasets. Advances in AI have promoted numerous applications that have the potential to improve standard-of-care in the different fields of medicine.
Though, few other groups use to evaluate different use cases for machine learning in assisted reproductive medicine, this approach is novel in how it used a deep learning system trained on a large dataset to make predictions based on static images.
Such findings could help the couples become parents through IVF with higher chances of conceptions with right embryos selections. And further with more improvement in training development of AI systems will be used in aiding embryologists to select the embryo with the highest implantation potential, especially amongst high-quality embryos.
Watch Video: Future of AI in Embryo Selection for IVF
Source: Health Analytics
How Artificial Intelligence Can Predict Health Risk of Pregnancy?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare is going to improve the birth process of humans with better diagnosis method when baby is in mother’s womb. Yes, using the machine learning approach, now AI can help predict the pregnancy related risks.
As per the published in the American Journal of Pathology, a machine learning model can analyze placenta slides and inform more women of their health risks in future pregnancies, leading to lower healthcare costs and better outcomes.
Placenta Complications During Pregnancy
Actually, when a baby is born, doctors sometimes examine the placenta for features that might suggest health risks in any future pregnancies. Providers analyze placentas to look for a type of blood vessel lesion called decidual vasculopathy (DV).
These indicate that the mother is at risk for preeclampsia, a complication that can be fatal to both the mother and baby in any future pregnancies. Once detected, preeclampsia can be treated, so there is considerable benefit from identifying at-risk mothers before symptoms appear.
However, although there are hundreds of blood vessels in a single slide, only one diseased vessel is needed to indicate risk. This makes examining the placenta a time-consuming process that must be performed by a specialist, so most placentas go unexamined after birth.
How Machine Learning Predict Pregnancy Risks?
Researchers said, pathologists train for years to be able to find disease in these images, but there are so many pregnancies going through the hospital system that they don’t have time to inspect every placenta with full attention and accuracy.
While on the other hand researchers trained a machine learning algorithm to recognize certain features in images of a thin slice of a placenta sample. The team showed the tool various images and indicated whether the placenta was diseased or healthy.
Because it’s difficult for a computer to look at a large picture and classify it, the team employed a novel approach through which the computer follows a series of steps to make the task more manageable.
First, the computer detects all blood vessels in an image. Each blood vessel can then be considered individually, creating similar data packets for analysis.
Then, the computer can access each blood vessel and determine if it should be deemed diseased or healthy. At this phase, the algorithm also considers features of the pregnancy, such as gestational age, birth weight, and any conditions the mother might have. If there are any diseased blood vessels, then the picture is marked as diseased.
The tool achieved individual blood vessel classification rates of 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity, and an area under the curve of 0.99. While algorithm helps pathologists know which images they should focus on by scanning an image, locating blood vessels, and finding patterns of the blood vessels that identify.
The team noted that the algorithm is meant to act as a companion tool for physicians, helping them quickly and accurately assess placenta slides for enhanced patient care.
AI Assisted Pregnancy Risk Detection
Though, this algorithm isn’t going to replace a pathologist anytime soon. The goal here is that this type of algorithm might be able to help speed up the process by flagging regions of the image where the pathologist should take a closer look.
Such studies demonstrate the importance of partnerships within the healthcare sector between engineering and medicine as each brings expertise to the table that, when combined, creates novel findings that can help so many individuals.
Such useful findings have significant implications for the use of artificial intelligence in healthcare. As healthcare increasingly embraces the role of AI, it is important that doctors partner early on with computer scientists and engineers so that we can design and develop the right tools for the job to positively impact patient outcomes.
And with the high-quality healthcare training data for machine learning can further help to improve the risks level associated with pregnancies. AI companies are using the right training datasets to train such model to learn precisely and predict accurately.
Source: Health Analytics
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