If you are a lazy person and love to sleep most of the time and can lay in bed for 60 days, NASA is giving you a golden chance to earn $18,500 or approximately Rs. 12,80,000 in Indian currency just for sleeping on the bed for two months allowing scientists to study and understand how artificial gravity affects the body of humans.
What is NASA 60 Days in Bed Study and Motive of this Research?
As per this research and study volunteers have to sleep for 60 days upon the bed while performing all daily necessary the activities like having meals, taking a bath at the bed-rest phases under the guidance of scientist and other attendants at research center.
And during the AGBRESA study, you will not be allowed to move so that strain on their muscles, tendons, and the skeletal system are cut down. Actually, the main motive behind this study is how bodies change in a weightless environment, similar to living in space.
NASA will take out data to see how astronauts are affected in space when they stay in space for long days and by simulating weightlessness’ effects with bed rest, scientists will develop methods to counteract the impacts of weightlessness on astronauts, so that they don’t need to spend most of their days on the space station exercising.
Where this Study will be conducted?
The study is called Artificial Gravity Bed Rest (AGBRESA) launched by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in association with European Space Agency (ESA) at the German Aerospace Centre, at Cologne, Germany.
To conduct this study the beds will be put in Envihab which is a medical research facility of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the German Aerospace Center where the effects of diverse environmental conditions on human body are analyzed and studied.
Who can apply for this Job?
For this study NASA is looking for highly motivated, healthy 12 female and 12 male volunteers within the age of 24 to 55 years, who can lie down in bed straight for two months.
And the only qualification you require to volunteer to apply for this job to NASA is you should have knowledge of spoken German language to communicate with scientists.
How this Study Can Affect your Body?
It might be dream job for you to earn this much of money only in two months but it would be also stressed and little painful job. As, you won’t be allowed to sit up at all, even for meals, and must keep at least one shoulder in contact with the mattress at all times.
Though, NASA paying to sleep for 60 days but the worst could be, the top of your bed will be angled down by six degrees, so fluids move towards your head. This long days bed rest have a similar effect on your body to low gravity leading to muscle and bone atrophy.
Further, to find whether artificial gravity can effectively prevent this you’ll be taken for a daily spin in a centrifuge, pushing the blood through your extremities.
And to recover your body from such extreme tests apart from 60 days you will be stay in Envihab at for 5 days to familiarise and more 14 days for resting and astronaut rehabilitation.
Why Vaccine Development Process for New Diseases Like Coronavirus Takes 12 to 18 Months?
Amid the new coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, many people especially, common man is thinking why medical scientist and healthcare researchers are taking too much time to develop the vaccine so, that people can be immune to protect from this disease.
Though, the clinical trial for new coronavirus is already under process globally, but the process of producing a usable coronavirus vaccine will take at least 12 to 18 months before make it available to the public at mass level for vaccination.
Coronavirus Vaccine Development Process
Actually, the process of testing and approving a new treatment or vaccine is a complex one, and for good reason. There need to be safeguards in place to confirm that a treatment or vaccine is effective and safe before using it on the general public. Hence, we brought here the vaccine clinical trial and development process.
CURRENT PHASE: RESEARCH & DISCOVERY
Currently, companies and labs around the world are working to identify and develop potential vaccine candidates and test them on animals to determine whether they’re promising and safe enough for human trials.
Once the vaccine has been proven to be successful and safe in animal testing, the FDA will approve it for human clinical trials. Some companies are already pushing to skip animal testing to accelerate the timeline to get to release, but many researchers are concerned about the risks of skipping this crucial step, let see the phases.
The first phase of the human clinical trial will involve giving the potential vaccine to a small group of healthy people (fewer than 100) and then monitoring those people for a few months for effectiveness and side effects.
This will help researchers understand the effect of the vaccine on the human body and whether there are harmful side effects that outweigh the benefits of the vaccine.
Once the vaccine passes the first phase, it will be approved for phase 2, which will involve a larger group of patients monitored over a longer period of time. Phase 2 clinical trials usually involve hundreds of patients and can take up to two years.
Due to the immediate nature of the pandemic and the fact that the vaccine is meant for the general population (and not a very specific subset of the population that could take a long time to recruit) this phase could be completed much faster than the normal timeframe.
Once the vaccine candidate is proven successful in the phase 2 trial, it will be approved for phase 3, in which the vaccine will be given to thousands of patients to gauge varying effectiveness and safety with different subsets of the population.
This will help ensure that the vaccine is truly effective for everyone and not just healthy and young members of the population.
FINAL PHASE: APPROVAL & RELEASE
Finally, the FDA will review the results of the clinical trials and approve the vaccine for the public. Then the company behind the vaccine can mass-produce the vaccine for public use and help them get immune with coronavirus infection.
The vaccine creator will still be required to run phase 4 trials after release to look for additional side effects and understand the long term effects of the vaccine once it’s out on the market. And at any time the vaccine can be taken off the market if necessary.
Even with an immediate global need, unlimited funding (it will take billions to shepherd vaccine candidates through the testing and approvals process), and collaboration from dozens of companies and governments, it will still take over a year before any vaccine will be available to control the COVID-19
Meanwhile, Australian researchers said they have mapped the immune responses from one of country’s first coronavirus patients, findings the health minister said were an important step in developing a vaccine and treatment.
Watch Video: The Race To Develop A Coronavirus Vaccine
While on the other hand, US volunteers test first vaccine for coronavirus and first human trial of a vaccine to protect against pandemic coronavirus has started in the US. But the biotechnology company behind the work, Moderna Therapeutics, says the vaccine has been made using a tried and tested process with more research.
Till now, none of vaccine is developed and not available in the market, you need to be very careful and stay protected from this virus with right preventive measures guided by designated medical authorities or health organizations.
Source: Deep6 AI
Why Does Stress Really Cause Gray Hair: Scientific Research Proof
“Stress causes hair gray” – we have been listening this aphorism since our childhood. And now scientists at Harvard University have proven why and how stress is the biggest reason behind the white hair, especially at a young age or before getting old.
The study, published in Nature, “Advances Scientists – knowledge of how stress can impact the body”. Over the past two decades, researchers have found preliminary evidence that stress plays at least a small role in initiating the graying process.
Over the long years, stories have connected stressful experiences with the phenomenon of hair graying. But now, for the first time, Harvard University scientists have discovered exactly how the process plays out and affects the color of our hair
As per the research under Dr. Ya-Chieh Hsu, a professor of regenerative biology at Harvard University in Massachusetts, US, stress activates nerves that are part of the fight-or-flight response, which in turn cause permanent damage to pigment-regenerating stem cells in hair follicles. Let’s find out further is grey hair caused by stress.
Why Does Stress Cause Grey Hair: Scientific Reason
Our hair color is determined by cells called melanocytes, which are derived from melanocyte stem cells (MeSCs). And people age, the supply of MeSCs is gradually depleted, causing pigmented hair to be replaced with white hair.
Though, stress affects the whole body, but here researchers first had to narrow down which body system was responsible for connecting stress to hair color. The team first hypothesized that stress causes an immune attack on pigment-producing cells.
However, when mice lacking immune cells still showed hair graying, researchers turned to the hormone cortisol. But once more, it was a dead end.
While previous studies have linked stress to premature and accelerated hair greying, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear.
Researchers at Harvard were studying the effects of pain on mice by injecting a toxin called resiniferatoxin when they discovered the rodents’ fur had turned white in just four weeks.
The researchers exposed the animals to various types of stressors, including pain, restraint and psychological stress, during different phases of hair growth.
Each stressor was found to cause depletion of MeSCs, eventually leading to the development of patches of white hair. On further investigation, the authors found that stress activated the sympathetic nervous system, triggering the release of a neurotransmitter called noradrenaline.
They found that noradrenaline caused MeSCs to eventually “move away” from the hair follicles, thereby leading to loss of colour. The team then looked for genes whose expression was most altered during the stress experiments and narrowed it down to one that encodes a protein called CDK.
The Earlier Assumption Why Stress Causes Gray Hair
As per the researchers – Stress always elevates levels of the hormone cortisol in the body, so we thought that cortisol might play a role. But when they removed the adrenal gland from the mice so that they couldn’t produce cortisol-like hormones, but the hair still turned gray under stress, making this assumption wrong among them.
Actually, sympathetic nerves branch out into each hair follicle on the skin. The researchers found that stress causes these nerves to release the chemical norepinephrine, which gets taken up by nearby pigment-regenerating stem cells.
How Stress Can Permanently Damage Hair?
The research revealed that, in the hair follicle, certain stem cells act as a reservoir of pigment-producing cells. When hair regenerates, some of the stem cells convert into pigment-producing cells that color the hair in our body.
Researchers found that the norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves causes the stem cells to activate excessively and then convert into pigment-producing cells, prematurely depleting the reservoir making your hair gray even at a very young age.
As per Dr. Hsu said they were expected that stress was bad for the body – but the detrimental impact of stress that discovered was beyond their imagination. Actually, after just a few days, all of the pigment-regenerating stem cells were lost and once they’re gone, you can’t regenerate pigment anymore resulting permanent damage.
Video: Dr. Explains How Stress affects Physical & Mental Health
To connect stress with hair graying, the researchers started with a whole-body response and progressively zoomed into individual organ systems, cell-to-cell interaction and, eventually, all the way down to molecular dynamics.
Yes, it is scientifically proven that stress really causes hair turn gray but still, there are multiple rezones that affect your hair color and its texture like water or pollution level environment, your health condition, eating habits and lifestyle etc. So, my personal advice is don’t take the stress and stay tension-free to live a healthy life.
How Much Smaller Is The Moon Than The Earth: Moon Vs Earth Size
Space agencies on earth are in a race to explore the surface of the Moon from various perspective. Being a natural satellite of our planet and one of the nearest heavy astronomical body of our solar system you would be curious to know more about Moon, how far it is away from our planet and how big is the moon compared to earth etc.
Moon Distance from Earth and Time to Reach There
Moon is around 238,855 miles or 384,400 km away from the earth. And if you travel by spacecraft you can reach at Moon in 3 days. Actually, in zero gravity spacecraft can travel from normal speed of 40,000 km per hour to high speed of 266,000 km/hr depending on the spacecraft capability and path choose to reach at a specific location.
How Much Bigger Is The Earth Than The Moon?
While comparing the earth with Moon, you can account multiple parameters like diameter, volume, mass and surface area depending on your needs. So, we have compared the moon with earth accounting various parameters listed below.
Moon Size Compared To Earth
Diameter – Moon 3,474 km vs Earth 12,742 km (approx 3.67 times).
Surface Area – Moon 37.9 million square km vs Earth 510 million square km.
Volume – Moon 21.9 billion cubic km vs Earth more than 1 trillion cubic km.
Mass – Moon 7.347 x 1022kg vs Earth 5.97x 1024 kg (81 times).
Moon Orbit and Rotation Period Around Earth
I think it’s clear now that who is a bigger moon or earth. Moon is a natural satellite of earth and orbiting our planet nonstop. Moon takes around 27.322 days to orbit earth and rotate on its axis in 27 days. However, it takes around 29.5 days for the Sun to move all the way across the sky and return to its original position again.
Compare to other planets in our solar system, Moon is closest to earth, hence planetary astronomers and space agencies are in a quest to reach there and explore the surface of this astronomical body to find some unknown facts like ice or other minerals existence.
Just like US, Russia and China, India space agency ISRO has also launched its second lunar exploration mission in July 2019 to reach and explore the south pole surface of Moon. But unfortunately just before the landing on Moon (2.1 km above the surface), the lander Vikram lost the connection with ISRO and not able to communicate again. ISRO is trying to contact Vikram and will also launch its next moon mission in 2022.
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